International Journal of Social Rehabilitation

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19--21

Factors contributing to not seeking orthodontic treatment in male adolescents - A questionnaire study


Preethi Manoharan, Anu 
 Department Public Health Dentistry, Sathyabama University Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Anu
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sathyabama University Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Introduction: Motivation is an impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment; it also affects adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction towards orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the lack of motivation of adult male patients or the other reasons responsible for not seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their reasons. Prejudiced notions about treatment and various fears have created a resistance or hesitation towards orthodontic treatment in men. The aim of this study is to assess the mind set and overall attitude of male adolescent patients toward not seeking orthodontic correction for malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted at the department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College, a total of 50 male subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic interventions were selected for the study. Data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire which was designed after reviewing recent articles, developments and also similar questionnaires that are based on the objectives of the study. Results: Sixty-nine percent of subjects were aware that they had a malocclusion whereas the remaining 31% were not aware. On asking as to why they were not correcting the malocclusion, 18% stated that it was embarrassing to wear braces, 4% stated that the treatment was too expensive, 19% stated that the treatment was that of a long duration, 7% felt they were too old for seeking orthodontic treatment, 6% had no interest to do the treatment, 9% stated it would painful, another 16% had concerns that food would get stuck to the braces, 21% were scared to undergo treatment. Conclusion: The unwillingness of male adolescent patients for seeking orthodontic treatment is studied and the reasons are discussed. This will help in educating them on the long term effects of malocclusion and to convince them for opting to go ahead with orthodontic treatment.



How to cite this article:
Manoharan P, Anu. Factors contributing to not seeking orthodontic treatment in male adolescents - A questionnaire study.Int J Soc Rehabil 2021;6:19-21


How to cite this URL:
Manoharan P, Anu. Factors contributing to not seeking orthodontic treatment in male adolescents - A questionnaire study. Int J Soc Rehabil [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Feb 8 ];6:19-21
Available from: https://www.ijsocialrehab.com/text.asp?2021/6/1/19/331474


Full Text



 Introduction



Orthodontic treatment is the process of aligning the teeth or correcting other irregularities, which thus improves health, function, appearance, and social well-being.[1],[2] Males are generally more concerned about the comfort rendered during treatment of their teeth. Understanding the factors that decide the requirement for orthodontic treatment will enable a more systematic planning and also better assessment of treatment needs and patient's priorities.[3]

There is a lack of research on the motivation of adults seeking orthodontic treatment, especially in men.[4] Both positive and negative motivations are correlated with adherence to treatment.[5] In orthodontic clinical practice, as well as in other dental specialties, treatment success does not depend solely on factors such as proper diagnosis, biocompatibility, and skill of the dentist but also depends on the patient's cooperation.[6] If the patient is not cooperative and does not follow the instructions given by the dentist, it may lead to unsatisfactory outcomes of the treatment; adolescence is a period when important physical, social, and emotional changes appear.[7],[8]

The cooperation of the adolescent patients can be altered based on extrinsic factors (social stereotypes, gender, educational level, family) and the intrinsic factors (personality, temperament). The unwillingness of male adolescent patients with malocclusions for orthodontic treatment is studied so as to be able to educate them on the long-term effects of malocclusion. Hence, we can convince them for opting to go ahead with orthodontic treatment. Self-perception of orthodontic treatment plays a major role in bringing the patient to the orthodontist for treatment, and the perception varies according to psychological status, basic knowledge of malocclusions, and also perception changes according to the comments an individual receives from the surrounding people.[9]

Social psychologists have described various theories on patient compliance. Many components of “health belief model” are applicable to orthodontic treatment situation. Variables such as treatment-seeking behavior, personality type, and barriers to action comply well with the compliance of the patient.[10],[11] A compliant orthodontic patient may be described as a patient who practices good oral hygiene, follows appropriate diet, maintains appliance without breaking, keeps regular appointments, and follows instructions of the doctor. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the current perspective of Indian orthodontic patients toward not seeking orthodontic treatment.

 Materials and Methods



A questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College; a total of 50 male subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic interventions were selected for the study. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire which was designed after reviewing recent articles, developments and also similar questionnaires that are based on the objectives of the study.

The questionnaire was divided into three parts. The first part included questions based on awareness of malocclusion, the second part consisted of questions related to their knowledge on sequelae of malocclusions, and the final part consisted of an open question asking them to state out their reason for not undergoing orthodontic treatment. All questionnaires were anonymously collected and the data were kept confidential and not used for anything apart from the study purpose.

Questionnaire

This questionnaire was modified from the questionnaire of Ingervall et al. and Ng'ang'a et al.[12],[13]

The following questions were included in the study:

Do you find that your teeth are irregular (not straight)?If your teeth are irregular, does this affect yourIf you think you need orthodontic treatment, why have not you done so yet?

 Results



[Figure 1] indicates that 69% of them were aware that they had a malocclusion whereas the remaining 31% were not aware. When asked about the sequelae of malocclusion, 48% of adolescent males pointed out the difficulty in mastication during orthodontic treatment while 24% said that food accumulation is a problem, 9% stated that compromised esthetics was their concern, and 19% were concerned of dental caries that could occur during treatment [Figure 2]. On asking as to why they were not correcting the malocclusion, 18% stated that it was embarrassing to wear braces, 4% stated that the treatment was too expensive, 19% stated that the treatment was that of a long duration, 7% felt that they were too old for seeking orthodontic treatment, 6% had no interest to do the treatment, 9% stated that it would painful, another 16% had concerns that food would get stuck to the braces, 21% were scared to undergo treatment [Figure 3].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}

 Discussion



This survey conveyed that patients had satisfactory knowledge of whether they possess malocclusions or not as well as the sequelae of the same. When looking at the factors contributing to the negative attitude of patients in not seeking orthodontic treatment, fear, no interest, and time constraints were the main concerns. Closely following were the concerns of difficulty in maintenance and embarrassment.

In our study sample, we conclude that for male patients, esthetics was not a major reason for seeking orthodontic treatment; hence, they lacked the motivation to seek orthodontic treatment and that can be a main reason for lack of interest toward orthodontic treatment.

In the study done by Al Zubair NM, the most common reason for not seeking orthodontic treatment in children was:

Lack of awareness about orthodontic treatmentFear of pain and of tooth removal.[14] The predominance of fear of pain is similar to that of Batayine,[15] Al-Huwaizi,[16] and Gatchel.[17]

Various studies identified female orthodontic patients as more cooperative than males.[4],[5],[6],[7] The present study showed similar findings that male adolescents were concerned more about pain and time duration of orthodontic therapy.

Egolf et al.[5] studied history factors associated with compliance. These factors were considered as a combination of personality type, negative motives, and positive motives. This study assessed the reason for patients not going forward with orthodontic treatment. The assessment on attitude of the patient was related to perception on treatment service, cost, and also personal factors such as embarrassment.

The factors contributing to the above-mentioned study vary from the present study due to variations in sample size and geographical variations.

 Conclusion



The unwillingness of male adolescent patients for seeking orthodontic treatment is studied and the reasons are discussed. This will help in educating them on the long-term effects of malocclusion and to convince them for opting to go ahead with orthodontic treatment.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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