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REVIEW ARTICLES
Pain in the face: An overview of pain of nonodontogenic origin
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Karthik Ramakrishnan
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_1_17  
It is common for pain in the orofacial region to be mistaken for a toothache, and similarly, other pains of the head and neck to mimic odontogenic pain orofacial pain may pose a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner. The purpose of this article is to: (a) provide the dental practitioner with an understanding of pain etiology to consider when developing differential diagnoses for orofacial pains and (b) review various types of nonodontogenic pains which may be mistaken for a toothache. Ultimately, this article will aid the dental practitioner with preventing misdiagnosis and delivery of incorrect and sometimes irreversible procedures for nonodontogenic pain.
  4,194 654 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies on panoramic films in the Saudi Population
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Basem T Jamal, Raneem Ageel, Abdulrahman A Binaffif, Basmah Ageel, Leena Karkashan, Anas Olwi, Zuhair Natto
July-December 2018, 3(2):40-46
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_18  
Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies according to age, gender, site, and type of impaction in the Saudi population in the city of Jeddah using digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2431 digital panoramic radiographs taken during the period between January 2010 and January 2017 were analyzed following exclusion criteria. Finally, a total of 2229 X-rays were considered for the study. Results: The most commonly impacted teeth were upper and lower left third mandibular molars. The most common angulation type was horizontal and the least was vertical impaction. Based on the overlying tissue covering the impacted teeth, soft-tissue impactions were the most common. There was no statistically significant outcome regarding the pathologies as cysts or tumors associated with the impacted teeth. There was a significant association between mesioangular impacted teeth and caries in the second molars. Conclusion: In our study, partial bony mesioangular impactions in level B positions were associated with significant distal caries in the second molars, whereas vertical impactions in level C positions caused increased distal bony loss and resorption which would warrant early surgical intervention in patients and also help in informing the patients on the ramifications of delaying the same. A statistically significant number of partial bony impacted third molars were carious, warranting early intervention.
  4,222 456 -
Prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania
Paulo Joseph Laizer, Tumaini Simon Ndekero, Karpal Singh Sohal
July-December 2018, 3(2):33-36
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_1_19  
Background: Dental anxiety is one of the most common phobias and among the major problems in dentistry. Students in medical field are future health professionals who are supposed to provide a positive attitude toward dentistry to the society. However, if they have dental anxiety, their attitude toward dentistry is likely to be negative. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving undergraduate students at MUHAS. Data were collected using self-administered Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaire with additional questions on demographic characteristics and a list of fear-provoking factors. Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software version 19.0 (2010; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Chi-square test was used to assess the association between variables, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study enrolled 252 undergraduate students with an age range of 18–39 years. More than half (54.4%) were males. Most (55.2%) of the participants had some degree of dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety was relatively higher in females (70.4%). The association between dental anxiety and the degree courses was significant. Dental students had the lowest dental anxiety level compared to nondental students. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at MUHAS was high. Dental anxiety was significantly higher in female students. There was a significant relationship between dental anxiety and the degree course of the participants.
  3,865 470 -
Prevalence of elongated styloid process and elongation pattern on digital panoramic radiographs in Saudi Population, Jeddah
Basem T Jamal, Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Suha H Alyawar, Israa N Maghrabi, Abeer M Alshaikh, Hala H Jabbad, Tala H Alsohaibi
July-December 2018, 3(2):37-39
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_19  
Aim: The aim of our research is to establish the prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in Saudi Arabia Jeddah using panoramic radiographs and the assessment of the patient's age, gender, sides, and type. Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a retrospective analysis on digital panoramic radiographs using the record base archives of the International Medical Center, dental department in Jeddah. In this study, 1971 radiographs were examined. The radiographs reviewed were taken between January 2010 - January 2017 using KaVo radiographic machine model OP300-1. The patient demographics, length of the SP at the right and left side and the classification pattern were entered in spreadsheet in microsoft excel 2007; and the statistical calculation were obtained by using SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Science ) version 21 software. 0.01. Result: The mean length of the styloid process was 29.05 mm in our study . In females it was 29.17 mm and in males it was 31.30 mm with the length being more in males than in females and the result being statistically significant with p value (0.000). The length of the styloid process increased with the age progressively and it was statistically significant with p value 0.004. The average length of right side styloid process in all age groups is 30.2mm and the left side is 29.6mm with the right side being more than the left and the results were statistically significant p value (0.00). SP Type I elongation was the highest on both the right and left sides and also in all the age groups as compared to Types II and III.
  3,510 416 -
Body image perception: An early predictor of weight change among medical students
Bhawana Pant, Sartaj Ahmad, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Chhavi Kiran
January-June 2018, 3(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_16  
Body image is a multidimensional dynamic construct that involves internal biological and psychological factors as well as external cultural and social determinants. Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life, and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and noncommunicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources, and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. The presence of psychological and psychiatric morbidities among medical students has been reported in various studies conducted across the world.
  2,827 400 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Containing Violence against Children: Global Perspective
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-December 2018, 3(2):47-47
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_4_18  
  2,754 362 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prediction of postoperative outcome in mandibular third molar surgery based on preoperative variables: A Prospective clinical study
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Vinod Narayanan, Mathivanan
January-June 2018, 3(1):14-23
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_17  
Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between preoperative findings and the postoperative outcome following surgical removal of lower third molar. Settings and Design: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha University. A total of 104 patients requiring surgical removal of unilateral third molar were evaluated. Patients who were on antibiotics and analgesic for an underlying problem related to impacted third molars preoperatively were excluded. Preoperative variables evaluated were age, sex, maximum interincisal distance, facial measurements both vertical and horizontal, radiographic measurement of position, class, angulation of impacted lower third molar, experience of operator, and duration of surgery. Postoperative evaluation was done on the 1st and 4th day and 7th postoperative day, and the following parameters were evaluated: facial swelling, pain, dry socket, secondary infection, paresthesia, postoperative bleeding, and fracture of jaw. Statistical Analysis Used: The preoperative parameters and postoperative outcomes were compared and correlated using one-way ANOVA, independent “t” test, and Chi-square test. Results: There is statistically significant result to demonstrate that pain and swelling increase with age, the depth of impaction, and when there is no adequate available space between the anterior border of ramus and second molar. As duration of surgery increases, pain, swelling, trismus, and frequency of dry socket increase in our study. Frequency of dry socket increases with increased depth of impaction. Conclusions: In our study, age, sex, the depth of impaction, the space available for the impacted tooth between the anterior border of ramus and second molar, duration of surgery, and horizontal and distoangular impactions have a positive correlation with the outcome of surgical removal of third molar.
  2,608 418 -
Hospital-based corneal retrieval at Shimla hills: An effective alternative to improve eye donation - Retrospective analysis of an eye bank data
Ram Lal Sharma, Kalpana Sharma, Shashi Sharma, Shagun Korla
January-June 2018, 3(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_18  
Aim: The retrospective analysis of eye bank data was done in terms of sociodemographic profile, topography, and types of donations for procurement. Materials and Methods: The data of 6 years' period from 2011 to 2016 were retrieved from the records available in the eye bank of the Department of Ophthalmology IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Results: There were 100 eye donations during this period in which 48 were males and 52 were females. Most of the donors belong to the age group of 60–80 years (n = 45), the corneal grade was B + in most of the cases (39%). The number of donors with rural background was more (71%) than that of donors with the urban background (29%) as the population profile of the state is mostly rural. The hospital-based motivational eye donations constituted as many as 91 eye donations and 9 only were voluntary. Conclusion: Hospital corneal retrieval program is the main source of eye donations as the difficult hilly terrains of the state, and harsh climatic conditions in winters limit the home-based retrieval of corneas. If hospital-based deaths are converted to eye donation, it can overcome the demand-supply gap in corneal blindness.
  2,626 358 -
CASE REPORT
Clinical and genetic analysis of a familial nonsyndromic oligodontia in a female patient: A rare case report
Saraswathi K Gopal, B G Harsha Vardhan, J Vijayashree Priyadharsini, M Padma
January-June 2018, 3(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_17  
Teeth agenesis is the most prevalent craniofacial congenital malformation in humans. Missing teeth is described in literature by various terms such as oligodontia, anodontia, and hypodontia. While tooth agenesis may be associated with several syndromes, nonsyndromic oligodontia refers to the congenital absence of more than six teeth in the absence of any other deformity. Studies in molecular genetics have made it possible to identify the exact genes responsible for the development of teeth and trace the mutations that cause oligodontia. The present case describes agenesis of permanent teeth which are familial and with no apparent systemic abnormalities.
  2,483 271 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Impact of new amendments in child labor laws on the health of children in India
Madhur Borah
January-June 2018, 3(1):30-31
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_16  
  2,365 380 -